Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences,
Volume 52, Pages 1-324 (2012)
10th Triple Helix Conference 2012
Jann Hidajat Tjakraatmadja
is now available at:
Innovation: Key to America’s
Prosperity and Job Growth
John Ahlquist (Editor)
The Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations at the Country Level, and Its Dynamic Evolution under the Pressures of Globalization
Fred Y Ye, Susan S Yu and Loet Leydesdorff
We collect data from the Web of Science (WoS), and compute the configurational information among university, industrial, and governmental addresses (U-I-G) at the country level. The relations between mutual information, joint entropy, and configurational information are first explicated. Comparing developed and developing countries, the dynamic evolution of the Triple Helix can be measured. The results show that the configurations among the three subsystems U-I-G become less negative over time. We suggest that globalization erodes local Triple Helix relations, and thus can be expected to increase uncertainty in national systems during the more recent period.
The Swedish System of Innovation: Regional
Synergies in a Knowledge-Based Economy
Loet Leydesdorff and Oivind Strand
Based on the complete set of firm data for Sweden (N = 1,187,421; November 2011), we analyze the mutual information among the geographical, technological, and organizational distributions in terms of synergies at regional and national levels. Mutual information in three dimensions can become negative, and thus indicate a net export of uncertainty by a system or, in other words, synergy in how knowledge functions are distributed over the carriers. Aggregation at the regional level (NUTS3) of the data organized at the municipal level (NUTS5) shows that 48.5% of the regional synergy is provided by the three metropolitan regions of Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmoe/Lund. Sweden can be considered as a centralized and hierarchically organized system. Our results accord with other statistics, but this Triple Helix indicator measures synergy more specifically and precisely. The analysis also provides us with validation for using this measure in previous studies of more regionalized systems of innovation (such as Hungary and Norway).
Interactive Overlay Maps for US Patent (USPTO)
Data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)
Loet Leydesdorff, Duncan Kushnir ,band Ismael Rafols
We report on the development of an interface <at www.leydesdorff.net/ipcmaps> to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the data are in the public domain; the freeware program VOSViewer can be used for the visualization.
These basemaps and overlays can be generated at both the 3-digit and 4-digit levels of the International Patent Classifications (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The basemaps provide a stable mental framework for analysts to follow developments over searches for different years, which can be animated. The full flexibility of the advanced search engine of USPTO is available for generating sets of patents which can thus be visualized and compared. This instrument allows for addressing questions about technological distance, diversity in portfolios, and animating the developments of both technologies and technological capacities of organizations over time.
Interactive Overlays on the basis of Aggregated Journal – Journal Citations 2011
The overlays can be made on the basis of any download from the (Social) Science Citation Index at the Web-of-Science in the (so-called) tagged format. The procedure for generating overlay maps on the basis of journals is analogous to the one for 2009 data described in: Loet Leydesdorff and Ismael Rafols, Interactive Overlays: A New Method for Generating Global Journal Maps from Web-of-Science Data (http://arxiv.org/abs/1105.2925) Journal of Informetrics 6(3) (2012), 318 – 332. [software: http://www.leydesdorff.net/journalmaps/]. The number of journals included in 2011 is 10,675 (JCR 2011 for the Science Edition and Social Science Edition combined, v. 1; July 2012).
The single major difference with the previous maps is clustering on the basis of the decomposition algorithm of Blondel et al. (2008) as default. Previously, we used clustering as provided by VOSViewer (Waltman et al., 2010). However, the two clustering results are both available, and the user can change this option. Examples and instruction are provided at http://www.leydesdorff.net/journals11