The Entrepreneurial University in the Construction of the Science, Technology, and Innovation Legacy (S, T & I): a Proposal from Rio 2016 Olympic Games

B TERRA, Rio de Janeiro State University – UERJ: brancaterra@gmail.com
L DACOSTA, Rio de Janeiro State University – UERJ: lamartine@terra.com.br
L L MARTINS, Rio de Janeiro State University – UERJ: lehneman@gmail.com
M S A MACIEL, Rio de Janeiro State University – UERJ: santannamaciel@gmail.com
M C ALMEIDA, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro – UNIRIO: almeida.mariza@globo.com

 

The 2016, the Olympic Games took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 5-21 August 2016. Several activities were developed in parallel to the Games, among these was the academic event titled “Public Debate on Innovations in Legacies of the Olympic Games” on 11 August 2016 at Santa Ursula University, in Rio de Janeiro.
At that time, researchers of the project “A Innovation Grade Study about the Brazilian Technological Based Firms – TBF, Incubated Academic Spin-offs”, supported by the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development” – CNPq, presented the preliminary results of the research, among which a new theoretical understanding was highlighted that extends the concept of legacy of mega sporting events. It is the scientific and technological legacy focused on innovation, based on investments of the government and private sectors in laboratories and persons’ infrastructure for conducting research and innovation, resulting in the development of new products and/or services and in the creation of new businesses in the sports area.
Major sporting events, because they are trans professional, are directly linked to various economic segments, since their inherent activities require a variety of products, ranging from clothing to medical technology and infrastructural services, and it is up to society to identify and take advantage of the opportunities provided by this medium. Because the sports production sector is ‘transversal’, in that it embraces a variety of different areas of knowledge in order to meet the specific demands, whether in sports education, in competitive sport or in physical activities aimed at promoting health, the learning provided by the universities to society should include teaching, training and research. These approaches are able to outreach the university-industry-government interaction as a means of bringing about extensive regional impact that, in practical terms, might as well be considered an effective entrepreneurial legacy of such sporting events (Terra et al, 2011).
Therefore, the sporting events legacy is not restricted only to economic results, cultural and sports infrastructure, networks of mobility, environmental improvement as inter alia Deslandes, DaCosta and Miragaya (2015) have previously demonstrated.
According to Chappelet (2016), who gave a lecture in the Debate mentioned above, after the games, impacts cover the areas: 1) economic (economic activity, tourism, jobs, taxes and foreign Investments); 2) sociopolitical (notoriety/image, evictions, volunteerism, protests and education/participation)) and environmental (construction, soil/water, energy, transportation and waste). Among the socio-political impacts, showed strong impact on the knowledge of organizers, the workforce, the volunteers and the strong feel good factor if the Games are well organized.
Furthermore, Spilling (1996), pointed out that based on previous experiences of countries that have hosted international sporting competition mega events, it has shown that the legacy for the host city also covers impacts generated by new entrepreneurial performance in the region, which can affect various economic sectors.
In Brazil, the prospect of hosting Several sports events, like the Football World Cup in 2014, the World Military Games in 2011, the Cup of Football Confederation in 2013, and the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016, as well as the experience of hosting the Pan American Games and Parapan Games in 2007, has stimulated discussion about the holding of such ‘mega-events’ and their legacy for the cities and regions which host them. This has extended into the academic sphere debate with scientific gatherings taking place and publications on the topic being released (DaCosta et al, 2008). At the same time, bodies, agencies, and government that supported scientific research have included, among their tendering invitations, themes devoted specifically to innovation in the field of sport, on the understanding that the country could use this opportunity to become a producer of sports solutions and not just a buyer.
Thus far, there is a favorable environment in Brazil for stimulating technological innovation in business, including non-repayable financial resources, subject to approval and the regulations of the Innovation Law (2004, 2005). Similarly the launching of federal government economic programs, such as the Plan for the Greater Brazil (2011-2015), seeks to provide continuity and expand upon the industrial policy measures that had previously been introduced: PITCE – industrial, Technological and Foreign Trade Policy (2003-2007) and PDP – Policy for the Development of Production (2008-2010), (Terra et al, 2013).
Whereas Brazil has a low degree of innovation in firms (Brazilian Innovation Survey -PINTEC, 2013) the major sports firms that develop R&D are international brands which characterize the country as innovative consumer and not a producer in sports tools. The government initiative to encourage innovation in sport might generate a legacy in S, T & I in this sector, hitherto non-existent.
Within this context the research turned to innovative firms located in incubators linked to universities and for the identification of the interactions developed among universities-industries-government, focused on the economic and social developed based on innovation.
This was possible because of the existence of incubators linked to universities and research institutes. The scientific and technological support that encouraged innovation in firms, as the country was preparing for sporting events, resulted in a S, T & I legacy, that in the Brazilian case had significant participation from entrepreneurial universities, as a source of knowledge of new products and services, which created in start-ups, with government support.
This identification of interactions developed between university-industry-government focused on the develop-ment based on innovation characterizes the Triple Helix of social and economic development of regions (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorf, 1995), as well as in the particular case of the Triple Helix of innovation in sport in Brazil.
During the research cited project authors identified that the period from 2010 to 2014, there were 148 sports innovation research and development projects presented by universities, institutes and firms research, totaling eight calls for proposals (Support Program for Innovation Development in Sport in State of Rio de Janeiro by Carlos Chagas Filho Research Agency of the Rio de Janeiro State – FAPERJ, in 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014; Public Selection of the Sports Ministry – ME/CNPQ number 91/2013 – Sport, Leisure & health – Projects of scientific research, technology and innovation, geared towards the development of sport in its different dimensions by CNPq/ME, in 2013; Public Selection 01/2012 – Science, Technology and Innovation Ministry – MCTI/Financier of Studies and Projects – FINEP/National Scientific and Technological Development Fund – FNDCT – Innovative Assistive Technology Products Training and Practice Paralympic Sports (Economic Subvention) by FINEP in 2012; twenty-six Young Scientist Awards by CNPq/Foundation for Research of the State of São Paulo – FAPESP/Roberto Marinho Foundation, Gerdau and General Electric – GE in 2012 and Project COPA 2014-Bis by the FINEP/MCTI, in 2010) which have provided an around US$ 20,000,000.00 from the federal government and from the state governments of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo (Martins et all, 2016).
Extensive research was also carried out in 430 Brazilian incubators, from all regions of the country, searching for incubated spin-offs/start-ups that were developing products and/or services in the sports innovation area. It was verified that nineteen incubators had twenty-four firms, located in seven states, had products and services related to the sports field.
In the first phase of the survey, researchers met nineteen incubated firms where the source of knowledge for the development of innovation were research projects, theses, dissertations, under graduate final papers, and scientific research. In the second phase of the research, still in progress, the degree of innovation of these firms has been identified.
From the information collected during the research with the identification of firms in incubators, the following figure shows the configuration of the Triple Helix highlighting the role of each propeller institutions:

Source: The Authors

Source: The Authors

The configuration of the Triple Helix in the development of innovation in sport in Brazil highlights the important role of the entrepreneurial university in the construction of the S, T & I Legacy from the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. Moreover, future research in the sport innovation area will need the creation of indicators to define the impact of legacy, expressing the characteristics and level of coverage of the achievements in the period of preparation, realization, and post hoc realization of mega sporting events.
REFERENCES
Chappelet, J-L. (2016) Presentation “Beyond Legacy: From pre-Games Impact to Post-Games Heritage. Universidade Santa Úrsula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil em 11 de agosto de 2016.
Dacosta, L. P, Correa, D, Rizzut, E and Villano, B. (Eds) (2008) Legados de Mega eventos esportivos. (First ed.). Ministério dos Esportes. Brasília.
Deslandes, A, Dacosta, L P and Miragaya, A. (2015) The Future of Sports Megaevents. Engenho e Arte, Rio de Janeiro.
Etzkowitz, H and Leydesdorff, L. (1995) The Triple Helix – University-industry-government relations: a laboratory for knowledge based economic development. EASST review, 14(1), 14-19.
Martins, L L, Maciel, M S A, Almeida, M and Terra, B R C dos S e S. Tabela de Suporte Governamental à Inovação no Esporte de 2010 a 2016.
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Terra, B, et al. (2013) Interaction Among Universities, Government and Spin-off Firms in a Brazilian Context to Generate Sports Innovation. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 8(2), 93-106.