The Triple Helix Journal has been upgraded from zero level to level one in the Finnish publication (JUFO) category. Within the level 1-3 category, credited when counting the performance of universities, level 3 represents the top journal and 2 leading journal, whereas most journals are in level 1. More information about JOFU can be found at: The Triple Helix Journal has an impact factor in Research Gate, the Researchers and Academics Social Network – RG Journal Impact: 0.73. This value is calculated using Research Gate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in the journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

Triple Helix Journal

Henry Etzkowitz, International Triple Helix Institute (ITHI), USA and Birkbeck College, UK

Managing Editor
Anne Rocha Perazzo, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France

Advisory Editors
Carlota Perez, Technological University of Tallinn, Estonia
Hebe Vessuri, Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research, Venezuela

Associate Editors
Christiane Gebhardt, Malik Management Institute, Switzerland/associated Heidelberg University, Germany
Loet Leydesdorff, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Riccardo Viale, Fondazione Rosselli, Italy
Chunyan Zhou, International Triple Helix Institute, China

Editorial Board
Irina Dezhina, Institute of International Relations and World Economy, Russia
Han Woo Park, YeungNam University, South Korea
Alexander Uvarov, TUSUR University, Russia
Jarunee Wonglimpiyarat, Thammasat University, Thailand Girma Zawdie, University of Strathclyde, UK

Recently published papers:

The transfer of corruptive routines from old industrial regions to innovation clusters: a blind spot in innovation studies Christiane Gebhardt


Synergy in the Knowledge Base of US Innovation Systems at National, State, and Regional Levels: The Contributions of High-Tech Manufacturing and Knowledge-Intensive Services

Loet Leydesdorff, Caroline S Wagner, Igone Porto-Gomez, Jordan A Comins, Fred Phillips

Synergies among technological opportunities, market perspectives, and geographical endowments can be considered as indicators of systemness. Using information theory, we propose a measure of synergy among size-classes, zip-codes, and NACE-codes for 8.5 million American firms. The synergy at the national level is decomposed at the level of states and Core-Based Statistical Areas (CBSA) as regions. Thereafter, we zoom in to the state of California and in even more detail to Silicon Valley. Our results do not support the assumption of a national system of innovations in the U.S.A. Innovation systems appear to operate at the level of the states, the CBSA regions are too small, so that systemness spills across their borders. Decomposition of the sample in terms of high-tech manufacturing (HTM), medium-high-tech manufacturing (MHTM), knowledge-intensive services (KIS), and high-tech services (HTKIS) does not change this pattern, but refines it. The East Coast–New Jersey, Boston, and New York–and California are the major players, with Texas a third one in the case of HTKIS. At the regional level, Chicago and industrial centers in the Midwest also contribute synergy. Within California, Los Angeles and its environment contribute synergy in the sectors of manufacturing, the San Francisco area in KIS, and Silicon Valley in both, but with synergy mainly generated by manufacturing. Knowledge-intensive services in Silicon Valley spillover to other regions and even globally.

Preprint at


Technology Management in Higher Education: Manual for Offices of Research and Technology Commercialization TTOs/ORICs

Amazon January 2017

Authors: Rahmat Ullah, Mir Dost

Congratulation to Rahmat Ullah, the Secretary of our SATHA Chapter, for his new book

This is a Manual for Offices of Research Technology and Commercialization/Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs). It is firmly believed that ORICs/TTOs in higher education are instruments for quality research, innovation and commercialization. Authors believe that this manual provides details of managing bottlenecks, operational issues, practical challenges and present possible interventions to effectively manage TTOs/ORICs. The book explains guidelines for Technology Management Offices that helps to promote problem solving/applied research in higher education of Pakistan.


Counter-cyclical Public Venture Capital: Debt-funding as an Anti- Austerity Innovation Strategy

Social Science Information 56(3):053901841771979
July 2017

DOI: 10.1177/0539018417719795

Authors: Alex Etzkowitz, Henry Etzkowitz

This article outlines a counter-cyclical innovation strategy to achieve prosperity, derived from an innovative project, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM). We identify an ‘innovation paradox’ in that the very point in the business cycle, when legislators are tempted to view austerity as a cure for economic downturns and to reduce innovation spend, is when an increase is most needed to create new industries and jobs and innovate out of recession or depression. It is both desirable and possible that policymakers resist the urge to capitulate to the innovation paradox. During periods that exhibit subdued inflation, elevated spare productive capacity, and low government borrowing rates, governments should increase their borrowings and use the proceeds to boost investment targeted towards innovation. We show how the State of California successfully utilized debt financing, traditionally reserved for physical infrastructure projects, to stimulate the development of intellectual infrastructure. Finally, we recommend a halt to European austerity policies and a ‘triple helix’ broadening of narrow ‘smart specialization’ policies that chase a private venture capital chimera. Europe should seize the present macroeconomic opportunity of low interest rates, borrow for innovation and be paid back manifold by ‘picking winners’, similarly to what the USA has been doing through DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) with GPS, as a response to Sputnik, the Internet and artificial intelligence, or the driverless car, formerly known as the ‘autonomous land vehicle’ in its military guise. Proactively targeted macroscopic investments in innovation are needed to solve the productivity/employment puzzle and foster the transition to a knowledge-based society.


Innovation Lodestar: The Entrepreneurial University in a Stellar Knowledge Firmament

Technological Forecasting and Social Change Volume 123, October 2017, Pages 122-129

Author: Henry Etzkowitz


This article analyzes the stages and phases of development of the entrepreneurial university, incorporating the classic Humboldtian dualistic academic model that unites teaching and research, into a Triple Helix of university-industry-government interactions. The MIT and Stanford cases provide empirical data for the extrapolation of a knowledge-based regional development model that has become increasingly widespread in the US and globally. The societal implications of the dialectic between the ‘capitalization of knowledge’ and the ‘cogitization of capital’ are explored, in conclusion.