Triple Helix Journal



ISSN: 2197-1927 (electronic version)

Henry Etzkowitz, International Triple Helix Institute (ITHI), USA and Helix Centre, Linkoping University, Sweden

Managing Editor
Anne Rocha Perazzo, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France

Advisory Editors
Carlota Perez, Technological University of Tallinn, Estonia
Hebe Vessuri, Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research, Venezuela

Associate Editors
Yuzhuo Cai, University of Tampere, Finland
Devrim Göktepe-Hultén, University of Lund, Sweden
Annamaria Inzelt, IKU Innovation Research Center Hungary
Riccardo Viale, Fondazione Rosselli, Italy
Girmah Zawdie, Strathclyde University
Alice Chunyan Zhou, International Triple Helix Institute, China

Editorial Board
Justin Axelberg, University of Sao Paulo
Irina Dezhina, Institute of International Relations and World Economy, Russia
James Dzisah, University of Ghana Loet Leydesdorff, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Liudvika Leysite, Dortmund University
Josep Piqué, International Association of Science Parks and Areas of Innovation (IASP)
Ary Plonski, University of Saõ Paulo, Brazil

Recently published papers in the Triple Helix Journal:

Towards a typology of university technology transfer organizations in China: evidences from Tsinghua University
Han Zhang, Yuzhuo Cai, Zhengfeng Li

Researcher identities and practices inside centres of excellence and ‘Centre of Excellence in Research…
Siri Brorstad Borlaug, Magnus Gulbrandsen

Academic institutional entrepreneurs in Germany: navigating and shaping multi-level research commercialization governance
Liudvika Leišytė, Lisa Sigl

The Role the University Could Play in an Inclusive Regional Innovation System
Extant research shows that universities do not usually foster an inclusive innovation system.
Wei Yao, Heng Li, Mosi Weng

Triple Helix and the evolution of ecosystems of innovation: the case of Silicon Valley
Josep M Pique, Jasmina Berbegal-Mirabent and Henry Etzkowitz

Topical collection of the Triple Helix Journal: agents of change in university-industry-government-society relationships
Liudvika Leišytė, Maximilian Fochler

The intermediary as an institutional entrepreneur: institutional change and stability in triple-helix cooperation
Florian Poppen, Reinhold Decker

‘Innovation policy is a team sport’ – insights from non-governmental intermediaries in Canadian innovation ecosystem
Merli Tamtik



Loet Leydesdorff
is named a Highly Cited Researcher for 2018.

Loet is among an elite group recognized for exceptional research performance demonstrated by production of multiple highly cited papers that rank in the top one percent by citations for field and year in Web of Science.



Henry Etzkowitz and Loet Leydesdorff authors of one of the most downloaded papers of SSRN
The paper “THE TRIPLE HELIX — UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY-GOVERNMENT RELATIONS: A LABORATORY FOR KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT”, was recently listed on SSRN’s Top Ten download list for: Sustainable Technology eJournal.
As of 24 November 2018, the paper has been downloaded 3,190 times
Universities and industry, up to now relatively separate and distinct institutional spheres, are assuming tasks that were formerly largely the province of the other. The role of government in relation to these two spheres is changing in apparently contradictory directions. Governments are offering incentives, on the one hand, and pressing academic institutions, on the other, to go beyond performing the traditional functions of cultural memory, education and research, and make a more direct contribution to “wealth creation” (HMSO 1993). Governments are also shifting their relationships to economic institutions, becoming both more and less involved. In some countries with a laissez faire capitalist tradition such as the US, government is playing a greater role in innovation in the civilian economy (Etzkowitz 1994a) while in former socialist societies government has withdrawn from its previous position of total control of science and technology policy; adopting a stance more in accord with laissez faire principles. Multi-national institutions such as the European Union, the World Bank and the UN are also moving to embrace concepts of knowledge based economic development that bring the knowledge, productive and regulatory spheres of society into new configurations. In this paper, we wish to study the role of the sciences in this changing environment with a focus on the university’s position in the newly emerging knowledge infrastructure.



Henry Etzkowitz, Eloïse Germain-Alamartine, Jisoo Keel, Caleb Kumar, Kaden Nelson Smith, Ekaterina Albats

Stanford is a quintessential entrepreneurial university, encouraging firm formation from existing knowledge that the university aggregates as well as new knowledge that it creates. Its founders implanted an academic institution, with scholarly and entrepreneurial ambitions, on a ranch where cattle still graze in the upper campus. In contrast to MIT’s founding role in Boston, infusing new technology into an old industrial region’s firms, Stanford assisted industrial development in an agricultural region and its industrial interlocutors raised the technical level of the university in mutually beneficial symbiosis (Lecuyer, 2007). The theory and practice of how to “make over” a university into an entrepreneurial actor has come to the forefront of academic and policy attention, internationally, with the European Union sponsoring development of the U-Multirank tool that includes the phenomenon (Van Vught and Ziegele, 2012) and a Brazilian post-graduate student project part of the ITHI Global Entrepreneurial University Metrics (GEUM) initiative that produced a dedicated entrepreneurial university metric (Nerves and Mancos, 2016). As





Inessa Laur, Magnus Klofsten,
Dzamila Bienkowska

This article focuses on actors and activities of cluster initiatives which are intermediaries within clusters of similar and related firms. A case study method is used; the cases show that their success and longevity depend to a large extent on their actors sharing a common vision. It is proposed that actors involved in cluster initiatives can be categorized according to a typology consisting of key players, target and support groups. Managing cluster initiatives requires striking a balance between well-developed and anchored targeted activities and experimental activities exploring future needs. This requires some openness and flexibility within the shared vision. Cluster initiatives can therefore be viewed as dream-catchers that rather than control and govern the clusters perform a more subtle role of gathering and visualizing potential opportunities in regional contexts and articulating and realizing them through an entrepreneurial process.




Magnus Klofsten, Dzamila Bienkowska, Inessa Laur, Ingela Sölvell


Cluster development is prioritized in policy programmes as a means to facilitate regional growth and job creation. Triple Helix actors are often involved in so-called cluster initiatives – intermediary organizations having the objective of the development of a local or regional cluster. This paper maps out the ‘big five’ qualitative success factors in cluster initiative management: the idea; driving forces and commitment; activities; critical mass; and organization. The proposed framework enables the assessment of performance and sustainability over time, useful for both everyday management operations and policy programmes designed to support cluster initiatives.




Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor, Brian Uzzi, Michael Neuschatz, Elaine Seymour, Lynn Mulkey, Joseph Alonzo


Why are there so few women scientists? Persisting differences between women’s and men’s experiences in science make this question as relevant today as it ever was. This book sets out to answer this question, and to propose solutions for the future. Based on extensive research, it emphasizes that science is an intensely social activity. Despite the scientific ethos of universalism and inclusion, scientists and their institutions are not immune to the prejudices of society as a whole. By presenting women’s experiences at all key career stages, from childhood to retirement, the authors reveal the hidden barriers, subtle exclusions and unwritten rules of the scientific workplace, and the effects, both professional and personal, that these have on the female scientist.





Henry Etzkowitz, Chunyan Zhou

The triple helix of university–industry–government interactions is a universal model for the development of the knowledge-based society, through innovation and entrepreneurship. It draws from the innovative practice of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with industry and government in inventing a regional renewal strategy in early 20th-century New England. Parallel experiences were identified in “Silicon Valley,” where Stanford University works together with industry and government. Triple helix is identified as the secret of such innovative regions. It may also be found in statist or laissez-faire societies, globally.
The triple helix focuses on “innovation in innovation” and the dynamic to foster an innovation ecosystem, through various hybrid organizations, such as technology transfer offices, venture capital firms, incubators, accelerators, and science parks.
This second edition develops the practical and policy implications of the triple helix model with case studies exemplifying the meta-theory, including:
• how to make an innovative region through the triple helix approach;
• balancing development and sustainability by “triple helix twins”;
• triple helix matrix to analyze regional innovation globally; and
• case studies on the Stanford’s StartX accelerator; the Ashland, Oregon Theater Arts Clusters; and Linyi regional innovation in China.
The Triple Helix as a universal innovation model can assist students, researchers, managers, entrepreneurs, and policymakers to understand the roles of university, industry, and government in forming and developing “an innovative region,” which has self-renewal and sustainable innovative capacity



Inga Ivanova, Øivind Strand,
Loet Leydesdorff


Advances in Complex Systems, 25(1) 1850023 (23 pages); DOI: 10.1142/S0219525918500236
Economic complexity measures have been constructed on the basis of bipartite country-product network data, but without paying attention to the technological dimension or manufacturing capabilities. In this study, we submit a Ternary Complexity Index (TCI), which explicitly incorporates technological knowledge as a third dimension, measured in terms of patents. Different from a complexity indicator based on the Triple Helix model (THCI) or a measure based on patents and countries (PatCI), TCI – products, countries, and patents – can be modeled in terms of Lotka–Volterra equations and thus the further evolution of an innovation eco-system can be specified. We test the model using empirical data. The results of a regression analysis show that TCI improves on Hidalgo and Hausmann’s [The building blocks of economic complexity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106 (26) (2009) 10570–10575] and Tacchella et al.’s [A new metrics for countries fitness and products complexity, Sci. Rep. 2 (2012)] complexity measures with respect to both the ranking of countries in terms of their complexity and in terms of the correlation with GDP per capita.


Loet Leydesdorff, Caroline S Wagner, Igone Porto-Gomez, Jordan A Comins, and Fred Phillips, Synergy in the Knowledge Base of US Innovation Systems at National, State, and Regional Levels: The Contributions of High-Tech Manufacturing and Knowledge-Intensive Services, Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (forthcoming).

Loet Leydesdorff, Synergy in Knowledge-Based Innovation Systems at National and Regional Levels: The Triple Helix Model and the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity 4(2) (2018) 2; DOI: 10.1002/asi.24052.

Loet Leydesdorff, Mark Johnson, and Inga Ivanova, Toward a Calculus of Redundancy: Signification, Codification, and Anticipation in Cultural Evolution, Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 69(10) 1181-11921. doi:10.1002/asi.24052


Published by the Triple Helix Association  –  ISSN 2281-4515


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