ISSN: 2197-1927 (electronic version)

Henry Etzkowitz, International Triple Helix Institute (ITHI), USA and Helix Centre, Linkoping University, Sweden

Managing Editor
Anne Rocha Perazzo, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France

Advisory Editors
Carlota Perez, Technological University of Tallinn, Estonia
Hebe Vessuri, Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research, Venezuela

Senior Associate Editor
Christiane Gebhardt, Malik Management Institute, Switzerland / associated Heidelberg University, Germany

Associate Editors
Yuzhuo Cai, University of Tampere, Finland
Devrim Göktepe-Hultén, University of Lund, Sweden
Annamaria Inzelt, IKU Innovation Research Center Hungary
Riccardo Viale, Fondazione Rosselli, Italy
Girma Zawdie, Strathclyde University
Alice Chunyan Zhou, International Triple Helix Institute, China

Editorial Board
Justin Axelberg, University of Sao Paulo
Irina Dezhina, Institute of International Relations and World Economy, Russia
James Dzisah, University of Ghana
Loet Leydesdorff, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Liudvika Leysite, Dortmund University
Josep Piqué, International Association of Science Parks and Areas of Innovation (IASP)
Ary Plonski, University of Saõ Paulo, Brazil
Tatiana Pospelova, Moscow State University, Russia
Jarunee Wonglimpiyarat, Thammasat University


The Role the University Could Play in an Inclusive Regional Innovation System
Wei Yao, Heng Li and Mosi Weng
Pages: 1-21

Academic institutional entrepreneurs in Germany: navigating and shaping multilevel research commercialization governance
Liudvika Leišytė and Lisa Sigl
Pages: 1-23

Researcher identities and practices inside centres of excellence
Siri Brorstad Borlaug and Magnus Gulbrandsen
Pages: 1-19

Towards a typology of university technology transfer organizations in China: evidences from Tsinghua University
Han Zhang, Yuzhuo Cai and Zhengfeng Li
Pages: 1-33

Science Parks and the Attraction of Talents: Activities and Challenges
Eduardo Cadorin, Magnus Klofsten, Alberto Albahari and Henry Etzkowitz

The Triple Helix Frame Contributes to Strategic Innovation in Nearshore Wind Park Ecosystems
Tove Brink

THA Members are invited to contribute to the THJ by submitting their articles in response to the open call for papers.  Your support is extremely important during this phase, since the SCOPUS application is in progress and the THJ needs to boost the paper pipeline to be successful.  Please give us your full support.



Innovation Systems in México:a Matter of Missing Synergies
Porto-Gomez, I, Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, J M
and Leydesdorff, L.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change
148 (November 2019), 119721
Doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119721



Innovative economies generate new options from geographical, technological, and organizational synergies. These synergies can be indicated as subsystems of negative entropy. Such a reduction of uncertainty favours the climate for innovation.  Using information theory and triple helix model of university-industry-government relations, we analyse the Mexican innovation system at national and regional levels in terms of the mutual information flowing between the geographical, technological, and organizational subsystems, through measures of synergy.  Our results show that most synergies are produced at the national level. Although one can consider Mexico as a national innovation system, no specific strengths are found at this level that may be indicative of a well-functioning system.  At the sub-national level, a few regions show particular strengths in medium- and low-tech manufacturing industries and in knowledge-intensive services.  Therefore, México has a long-term potential for implementing more holistic science, technology and innovation policies to spur innovation at the sub-national level.

Synergy in the Knowledge Base of US Innovation Systems at National, State, and Regional Levels: the Contributions of High-Tech Manufacturing and Knowledge-Intensive Services
Leydesdorff, L, Wagner,C, S, Porto-Gomez, I, Comins, J A and Phillips, F
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 70(10) 1108-1123
Open Access at

Using information theory, we measure innovation systemness as synergy among size‐classes, ZIP Codes, and technological classes (NACE‐codes) for 8.5 million American companies. The synergy at the national level is decomposed at the level of states, Core‐Based Statistical Areas (CBSA), and Combined Statistical Areas (CSA).  We zoom in to the state of California and in more detail to Silicon Valley. Our results do not support the assumption of a national system of innovations in the USA Innovation systems appear to operate at the level of the states; the CBSA are too small, so that systemness spills across their borders. Decomposition of the sample in terms of high‐tech manufacturing (HTM), medium‐high‐tech manufacturing (MHTM), knowledge‐intensive services (KIS), and high‐tech services (HTKIS) does not change this pattern, but refines it.  The East Coast, New Jersey, Boston, and New York, and California are the major players, with Texas a third one in the case of HTKIS.  Chicago and industrial centers in the Midwest also contribute synergy.  Within California, Los Angeles contributes synergy in the sectors of manufacturing, the San Francisco area in KIS. KIS in Silicon Valley and the Bay Area, a CSA composed of seven CBS, spill over to other regions and even globally.


Why Triple Helix Governance is useful to dual apprenticeship systems
Michele Coletti
Grenoble Ecole de Management, France




Apprenticeship is a contractual form of work-based learning that has existed for centuries, but despite its historical impact on innovation and competitiveness, it has been perceived as a system for the shop floor or low-skill jobs.  The dual apprenticeship system combines school study with training on the job.  Well developed in several European countries it can lead to highly qualified jobs, so attracting the interest of universities and other higher education institutions. Academic, business and government stakeholders working together enact a Triple Helix (TH) framework.  This article analyses how the TH is suitable for the governance of apprenticeship systems and discusses the implications of the model.


Areas of innovation in cities: the evolution of 22@Barcelona
Josep Miquel Pique, Francesca Miralles and Jasmina Berbegal-Mirabent





Areas of innovation (AOIs) are on the agenda of urban planners in the revitalisation of inner cities.  The knowledge-based economy provides the opportunity to base these revitalisation efforts in creating AOIs as an evolution of the old industrial districts.  Grounded in key conceptual frameworks in this research field – triple helix model, knowledge-based urban development paradigm, clusters of innovation framework, co-evolutionary theory, learning region theory and lifecycle of a new venture – as a reference, this work contributes to the existing literature by proposing a comprehensive model for the evolution of AOIs from inception to maturity.  Using a case research study approach, the 22@Barcelona case, an AOI that transformed an old industrial district into a knowledge-based one, allows to analyse its evolution and to elaborate a model.  Academic value stems from a new theorising effort of the evolution of AOIs. Urban planners benefit by getting additional clues in the revitalisation of cities.



The Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention of Young Researchers: Combining the Theory of Planned Behavior with the Triple Helix Model
Rosangela Feola, Massimiliano Vesci, Antonio Botti and Roberto Parente




Although the theme of academic spin‐off has received increasing consideration in entrepreneurship literature, little attention has been devoted to identifying the factors that drive young researchers to set up ventures based on the results of their research.  To identify the determinants of academic entrepreneurial intention (AEI), we tested a model on a sample of Italian researchers using structural equation modeling and integrating the Triple Helix Model with the theory of planned behavior (TPB).  The findings highlight that all psychological variables of TPB are relevant in predicting AEI, whereas only some contextual and exogenous variables (namely, government and industrial/financial support) directly influence AEI.



Published by the Triple Helix Association  –  ISSN 2281-4515


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